Why WiMax failed to take off in Singapore

Incompatible and In the Cold
Moreover, unlike HSPA+ and LTE, WiMAX wasn’t designed with compatibility and co-existence with mobile operators’ existing GSM, CDMA and 3G networks at its core, meaning that a call or data session can’t necessarily be handed-over between a conventional mobile network and a WiMAX network, as a subscriber moves in and out of coverage areas. Given that context, the market for WiMAX has really been limited to so-called green-field operators, as it would have been an expensive U-turn for any operator to move from GSM or 3G into WiMAX, instead of simply upgrading to HSPA. For similar reasons, a step from CDMA-2000 into WiMAX would effectively be a massive gamble on customers being prepared to put up with potentially dropped calls and data sessions when they moved out of areas of WiMAX coverage.

As WiMAX isn’t a viable upgrade option for most existing mobile operators, it has been very difficult for vendors to get the economies of scale necessary to develop a wide selection of mass-market WiMAX devices. While HSPA has an ecosystem made up of several hundred equipment manufacturers offering more than 2,000 HSPA-capable devices, many vendors have turned away from WiMAX and towards LTE, and now some hitherto WiMAX operators are following suit.
Mash-up or Mess-up?
WiMAX’s incompatibility with existing mobile networks is just one of the reasons it hasn’t reached its apparent potential. In an age when openness and diversity, mash-ups and application development are creating a vast range of end-user services, it is easy to forget that mobile telecoms is a huge global success because of tight adherence to standardized technologies.

By contrast, early WiMAX networks have been deployed using a variety of implementations which have not always been compatible with one another and have held varying degrees of compliance with the 802.16 specifications. All of these implementations have been swept up under the WiMAX banner, but having a single name for a disparate collection of technical implementations does not replicate a standards-based ecosystem. This fragmentation creates an R&D headache for device manufacturers as they often need to adapt equipment for specific operators and specific networks. In trying to get ahead of LTE by arriving early and exploiting the resultant time-to-market advantage, WiMAX has shot itself in the foot.
Now, WiMAX finds itself in a precarious position. The vast majority of the major mobile operators in the world have made public statements of intent to move to LTE and they are making sure that this technology is deployed in a consistent way that will enable the ecosystem to achieve economies of scale. The years of experience that these operators have with deployments of 2G and 3G technologies mean that the LTE pioneers are unlikely to make the same mistakes as their WiMAX counterparts.
The breadth and depth of LTE’s global support is very ominous for WiMAX, but I do see the 802.16 technology having a future, primarily in scenarios where mobility and interoperability are a secondary consideration. These could include acting as an alternative to fixed lines in areas that are difficult and expensive to reach with ADSL and as a backup service in case a fixed line fails. WiMAX is also sometimes used to provide backhaul links for mobile base stations and it should continue to have a role in that market.
So, WiMAX will live on, but not as a significant rival to HSPA or LTE.
Dan Warren is director of technology at the GSM Association (GSMA).

Subliminal Advertising : Everyone is secretly doing it

7:00AM BST 28 Sep 2009

“Subliminal advertising really does work, claim scientists who found that people subconsciously respond to flashed messages – especially if they are negative.”

Researchers found that briefly displaying words and images so quickly that people do not even consciously notice, does nevertheless change their thinking.

They found it was particularly effective with negative images and words which could alter a person’s mood.
The phrase subliminal advertising was coined in 1957 by the US market researcher James Vicary, who said he could get moviegoers to “drink Coca-Cola” and “eat popcorn” by flashing those messages onscreen for such a short time that viewers were unaware.
His claims led to fears that governments and cults would use the technique to their advantage and it was banned in many countries, including the UK.
Vicary later admitted he had fabricated his results.

But more than 50 years on British researchers have shown messages we are not aware of can leave a mark on the brain.
A team from University College London, funded by the Wellcome Trust, found that it was particularly good at instilling negative thoughts.
“There has been much speculation about whether people can process emotional information unconsciously, for example pictures, faces and words,” said Professor Nilli Lavie, who led the research.
“We have shown that people can perceive the emotional value of subliminal messages and have demonstrated conclusively that people are much more attuned to negative words.”
In the study, published in the journal Emotion, Professor Lavie and colleagues showed fifty participants a series of words on a computer screen.
Each word appeared on-screen for only a fraction of second – at times only a fiftieth of a second, much too fast for the participants to consciously read the word.
The words were either positive (e.g. cheerful, flower and peace), negative (e.g. agony, despair and murder) or neutral (e.g. box, ear or kettle).
After each word, participants were asked to choose whether the word was neutral or “emotional” (i.e. positive or negative), and how confident they were of their decision.
The researchers found that the participants answered most accurately when responding to negative words – even when they believed they were merely guessing the answer.
Professor Lavie believes that the ability to subconsciously pick up fleeting signals could have developed as a way of picking up fleeting warnings.
“Clearly, there are evolutionary advantages to responding rapidly to emotional information,” she said.
“We can’t wait for our consciousness to kick in if we see someone running towards us with a knife or if we drive under rainy or foggy weather conditions and see a sign warning ‘danger’.”
Professor Lavie believes the research may have implications for the use of subliminal marketing to convey messages, both for advertising and public service announcements such as safety campaigns.
“Negative words may have more of a rapid impact,” she said.
““Kill your speed” should be more noticeable than “Slow down”. More controversially, highlighting a competitor’s negative qualities may work on a subliminal level much more effectively than shouting about your own selling points.”
Subliminal advertising is not permitted on TV in the UK, according the broadcasting regulator Ofcom. However, there have been a number of cases where the rules been stretched.
In one particularly infamous case in 1997, comedian Chris Morris used a half-frame caption at the end of the satirical show Brass Eye to criticise the chief executive of Channel 4, Michael Grade, for heavily editing the controversial programme.
The description of his boss – “Grade is a ****” – would certainly have fallen into the category of negative words as described in Professor Lavie’s research.

The Soldier of the Future

The Soldier of the Future

1) Communications. It is theorytically possible to embed a tiny capsule in the tooth of the soldier which will pick up sound from his mouth, and bounce off ELF signals to his ears for 2 way communications and conferencing using nanotechnology. We could see a prototype in less than 3 years at the rate of our technological advancement. This technology uses a “ring” network radio frequency that is unlike a cellular network where it is always “on”, suitable for a group of users in the network eg CIA agents and the VVIP they are protecting, or Special forces on a mission.

2) The increased use of Non-lethal weapons which can paralyse a human being temporary without hurting him. It is possible to subject the brain to a non-lethal beam to confuse and freeze his muscles temporary like he is having an epilepsy fit. The weapon can be installed in a trigger device, a briefcase, a truck or a flying drone for deployment. The present scanner technology combined with GPS could create a heat seeking view of targets for attack.

3) New aerospace technologies will expand the use of hovercraft and rotary blades to lift very heavy payloads with great maneuverability and speed across any terrain. There is a huge demand for a medium range aircraft that can function as a helicopter and a hovercraft across all terrain and the below example is not the final prototype of design. The successful design after being battle tested could spin an industry even greater than Boeing or Airbus.

– Contributed by Oogle.