In vitro meat, also known as cultured meat, is an animal flesh product that has never been part of a complete, living animal.
This form of meat has been described, sometimes derisively, as “laboratory-grown” meat. In vitro meat should not be confused with imitation meat, which is a vegetarian food product produced from vegetable protein, usually from soy or gluten. The terms “synthetic meat” and “artificial meat” may refer to either. The original NASA research on in vitro meat was intended for use on long space voyages or stays; it would be a sustainable food source alongside hydroponic or aeroponically grown vegetables.[dubious ]
Several current research projects are growing in vitro meat experimentally, although no meat has yet been produced for public consumption. As early as 2008, some scientists claimed that the technology was ready for commercial use and simply needed a company to back it. The first meats successfully grown in a lab included goldfish and lamb. Scientists at Maastricht University plan to produce sausage by March 2012 and hamburger by September 2012. Cultured meat is currently prohibitively expensive, but it is anticipated that the cost could be reduced to about twice that of conventionally produced meat. The first-generation products will most likely be chopped meat, and a long-term goal is to grow fully developed muscle tissue. Potentially, any animal‘s muscle tissue could be grown through the in vitro process, even human.
With the costs of conventional meat farming techniques constantly increasing and an increased demand from a rising world population (which is also bring world food prices up), in vitro meat may be one of several new technologies needed to maintain food supplies by the year 2050 Conventional meat production may simply become too expensive for the average consumer to support (when the world’s population will reach 8.9 billion people). The price of in vitro meat would become detached from the price of grain and corn as there would be no feeding in the conventional sense.
Modern research into in vitro meat arose out of experiments conducted by NASA, attempting to find improved forms of long-term food for astronauts in space. The technique was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995, and NASA has been conducting experiments since 2001, producing in vitro meat from turkey cells. The first edible form was produced by the NSR/Touro Applied BioScience Research Consortium in 2000: goldfish cells grown to resemble fish fillets.
In 2001, dermatologist Wiete Westerhof from the University of Amsterdam, medical doctor Willem van Eelen, and businessman Willem van Kooten announced that they had filed for a worldwide patent on a process to produce in vitro meat. In the process, a matrix of collagen is seeded with muscle cells, which are then bathed in a nutritious solution and induced to divide. Scientists in Amsterdam study the culture medium, while the University of Utrecht studies the proliferation of muscle cells, and the Eindhoven University of Technology is researching bioreactors. Van Eelen said that he had thought of the idea of in vitro meat for years, since he was held in a Japanese POW camp.
Jon F. Vein of the United States has also secured a patent (U.S. Patent 6,835,390) for the production of tissue-engineered meat for human consumption, wherein muscle and fat cells would be grown in an integrated fashion to create food products such as beef, poultry and fish.
The first peer-reviewed journal article published on the subject of laboratory-grown meat appeared in a 2005 issue of Tissue Engineering. Of course, the basic concept dates back further. Winston Churchill said in the 1930s, “Fifty years hence, we shall escape the absurdity of growing a whole chicken in order to eat the breast or wing, by growing these parts separately under a suitable medium.”
In 2008, PETA offered a $1 million prize to the first company that brings lab-grown chicken meat to consumers by 2012. The Dutch government has put US$4 million into experiments regarding in vitro meat. The In Vitro Meat Consortium, a group formed by international researchers interested in the technology, held the first international conference on the production of in vitro meat, hosted by the Food Research Institute of Norway in April 2008, to discuss commercial possibilities. Time Magazine declared in vitro meat production to be one of the 50 breakthrough ideas of 2009. In November 2009, scientists from the Netherlands announced they had managed to grow meat in the laboratory using the cells from a live pig.
Most meat is animal muscle. The process of developing in vitro meat involves taking muscle cells and applying a protein that helps the cells to grow into large portions of meat. Once the initial cells have been obtained, additional animals would not be needed – akin to the production of yogurt cultures. One animal could provide more than a billion pounds of in vitro meat to feed the world’s population for at least several hundred years.
There are, loosely, two approaches for production of in vitro meat: loose muscle cells and structured muscle, the latter one being vastly more challenging than the former. Muscles consist of muscle fibers, long cells with multiple nuclei. They do not proliferate by themselves, but arise when precursor cells fuse. Precursor cells can be embryonic stem cells or satellite cells, specialized stem cells in muscle tissue. Theoretically, it is relatively simple to culture them in a bioreactor and then make them fuse. For the growth of real muscle, however, the cells should grow “on the spot,” which requires a perfusion system akin to a blood supply to deliver nutrients and oxygen close to the growing cells, as well as to remove the waste products. In addition, other cell types, such as adipocytes, need to be grown, and chemical messengers should provide clues to the growing tissue about the structure. Lastly, muscle tissue needs to be physically stretched or “exercised” to properly develop.
The price of in vitro meat at retail outlets like grocery stores and supermarkets may decrease prices to levels that middle-class consumers consider to be “inexpensive” due to technological advancements. Milk, cheese and eggs could also be produced without needing multiple animals.
In vitro meat does not necessarily involve genetic engineering, a common misconception. In fact, the cells involved are natural cells which would grow in the normal method.
在体外肉又称培养肉，是一个从未有过一个完整的，活生生的动物的动物的肉产品。这种形式的肉已被描述，有时嘲笑，“实验室培养的”肉。在体外肉不应该混淆仿肉，这是一个素食产品生产的植物蛋白，通常是从大豆或面筋。可以指“人造肉”和“人造肉”的条款。原美国宇航局研究的目的是为长期太空航行或停留在体外肉，那将是一个可持续的食物来源，水培或aeroponically种植的蔬菜一起可疑 – 讨论]。一些目前的研究项目是在体外肉类日益增长的实验，虽然没有肉尚未为市民的消费产生早在2008年，一些科学家声称，该技术是准备用于商业用途，只是需要一个公司来支持它。 首次成功地在实验室中培育出来的肉类，包括金鱼和羊肉。在马斯特里赫特大学计划2012年9月生产的香肠，汉堡2012年3月的科学家。培养肉是目前非常昂贵，，但预计的成本可以降低约两倍的传统方式生产的肉类，。 第一代产品将最有可能被切碎的肉，和一个长远的目标是成长发育完全的肌肉组织。潜在的，任何动物的肌肉组织，可以通过在体外培养过程中中成长，甚至人类。随着传统的肉类养殖技术不断提高的成本和需求增加，从一个崛起的世界人口（这也是世界粮食价格上涨带来），在体外肉可保持到2050年的粮食供应所需的几项新技术之一[ 6]传统的肉类产量可能会变得过于昂贵，对于普通消费者支持（当世界人口将达到8.9亿人）。在体外肉的价格将成为谷物和玉米的价格脱离传统意义上的有没有喂养。
现代研究在体外肉类是由美国宇航局进行的实验，试图找到宇航员在太空长期粮食改进形式。这项技术是由美国食品和药物管理局（FDA）批准，于1995年，[ 9]和美国宇航局已自2001年以来进行的实验中，从土耳其细胞在体外肉类生产 第一次食用的形式是由NSR / Touro生产在2000年应用生物科学研究协会：金鱼细胞成长为类似鱼片  在这个过程中，一个矩阵，在2001年，皮肤科Wiete Westerhof从阿姆斯特丹，医生威廉面包车Eelen和商人威廉范库腾大学宣布，他们已经提交了一个进程，为在世界范围内的专利生产体外肉。胶原蛋白是肌肉细胞，然后沐浴在一种营养丰富的解决方案，并诱导分化的种子。在阿姆斯特丹的科学家研究的培养基，而大学的乌得勒支的研究肌肉细胞的增殖，埃因霍温科技大学正在研究的生物反应器。范Eelen说，他原本以为多年在体外肉的想法，因为他是在日本战俘营举行。乔恩F.静脉美国也获得了组织工程供人类食用的肉类生产的专利（美国专利6835390），其中，肌肉和脂肪细胞将在一个综合的方式发展到创建食品，如牛肉，家禽和鱼类。同行之首评审期刊文章发表在实验室培养肉的主题出现在2005年组织工程的问题。当然，基本的概念可追溯到进一步。温斯顿丘吉尔在20世纪30年代，说：“五十年因此，我们应逃避荒谬的成长全鸡以吃母乳或翼由一个合适的媒介下，这些部件分别增长，”2008年，善待动物组织提供的奖金100万美元的的第一个公司，带来了2012年荷兰政府已经把进入实验400万美元，在体外培养肉就“在体外肉类实验室，成年鸡肉给消费者联盟，由国际研究人员在技术感兴趣组成的一个小组，召开生产的第一次国际会议，在体外肉，挪威食品研究学院于2008年4月举行，讨论商业机会。“时代”杂志宣布体外肉类总产量是2009年的50个突破性的思路之一。 2009年11月，来自荷兰的科学家宣布，他们已经在实验室使用从生猪的细胞生长肉类。
大多数肉类动物肌肉。体外肉类发展的过程中涉及到肌肉细胞和应用的一种蛋白质，可以帮助细胞增长到大块的肉，一旦最初的细胞已获得，动物就没有必要额外 – 类似的生产酸奶文化。一个动物可以提供超过10亿英镑在体外肉的饲料至少有几百年的世界人口。松散，有两种方法生产的体外肉：松散的肌肉细胞和肌肉结构，后者远远超过前者具有挑战性的。肌肉由肌肉纤维，长期与多个核细胞。他们不扩散本身，但产生的前体细胞时，保险丝。前体细胞胚胎干细胞或卫星细胞，肌肉组织中的专业的干细胞。从理论上讲，它是相对简单的文化他们在生物反应器中，然后让他们保险丝。然而，对于真正的肌肉增长，细胞成长“当场”，这需要一个类似的灌注系统的血液供应，提供营养和氧气密切生长的细胞，以及清除废料产品。此外，其他类型的细胞，如脂肪，需要成长，和化学信使应当提供线索的组织结构日益。最后，肌肉组织需要肢体伸展或“行使”发展。杂货店和超市等零售网点在体外肉的价格可能会降低价格水平，中产阶级消费者认为是“物美价廉”由于技术进步。牛奶，奶酪和鸡蛋也可以生产，而无需多动物。在体外肉类并不一定涉及基因工程，一个普遍的误解。事实上，细胞是天然细胞生长在正常的方法。